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Beef jerky and Other Recipes

I soak my beef overnight in a sauce consisting of liquid smoke, teriyaki baste & glaze, and a small amount of soy sauce. When I put it on the dehydrator, I sprinkle a little garlic powder and red hot peppers. It is delicious.

Boneless Venison

1 1/2 lb. 2 1/4 tsp. Tenderizing Salt 2 1/4 tsp. Pickling Salt 1 1/2 tsp. Garlic Powder 1 1/2 tsp. Pepper(any kind)

Combine all the seasoning ingredients in a bowl or, if you have one, a spare spice bottle with a shaker top. Slice the venison with the grain into strips about 1/8 inch thick. Lay the slices on a cutting board and sprinkle evenly with the seasoning mix, as though you were salting the hell out of them. Pound the strips lightly with a meat mallet, flip 'em over and repeat.

Cold smoke the strips for 5 hours or more. The jerky will become more brittle as it cools. Refrigerate when done. I only know how to cook these babies in a smoker. If you are using a dehydrater, your manual will probably give some times and stuff like that. If you are going to try this in the oven, I suggest very low heat for a long time, and you might want to sprinkle the strips with some liquid smoke.


The Best Vension Jerky Recipe Ever

3 lbs. Venison, sliced 1/4 " thick by 3/4" wide. 1/4 c. Liquid Smoke 1/2 c. Soy Sauce 1/2 c. Worchestershire Sauce 1/2 tsp. Cayenne Pepper 1 tsp. Accent meat tenderizer 1 tsp. Garlic Powder 2 tsp. Onion Powder 1/2 c. Warm Water chili pepper seeds, to taste

Mix ingredients together well and soak meat in it for 24 hours (a zip lock bag works great). Insert toothpicks through top of meat slices and hang on oven grates. Heat oven to 190 degrees and prop oven door open slightly and slow cook jerky for 5 hours and 15 minutes.


Rockey Whipkey's Beef Jerky Recipe

4lbs round steak marinate in mixture of 1/2 cup water 1/4 cup worchestershire sauce 1 tsp coarse ground black pepper 1/2 tsp garlic powder 1/4 tsp onion powder 1/4 tsp nutmeg 1 tsp salt marinate overnight put in food dehydrater 135-140 degrees until dry ummm good!


Wild Game Jerky

2 lb Sliced venison 1/8" thick 2 tb Worcestershire sauce 2 tb Soy sauce 1 tb Salt 1 ts Ground red pepper 2 Cloves garlic, sliced 1 cup Corn whiskey 1 cup Water

Slice the meat when it is lightly frozen. The cuts should be long, thin and with the grain. Cut across the grain if you want more tender, but more brittle Jerky. Trim off all of the fat. Marinate strips in a glass container overnight. You may substitute 2 cups of red Wine for the corn whiskey and water. Pat dry and arrange pieces side by side on an oven roasting rack, with- out overlap.

Cook at minimum heat (150F) for 6 hours. Leave oven door ajar to allow Moisture to escape. Meat should be dark, dry and store Jerky in a cool, airtight container.


Western Barbecue Jerky

1 ts Salt 3 tb Brown sugar 1/4 ts Pepper 1/3 cup of Red wine vinegar 1/8 ts Cayenne pepper 1/3 cup of Ketchup 1 ts Onion powder 1 lb Lean meat 1/2 ts Garlic powder 1 ts Dry mustard

Slice meat into long strips 3/16 to 1/4 inch thick. Uniform slices will shorten the drying time, so use a Meat slicer or have your butcher slice it for you. Cut across the grain for increased tenderness. Remove Excess fat. In a small bowl, combine all ingredients Except meat. Stir to mix well. Place meat 3 or 4 Layers deep in a glass, stoneware, plastic or Stainless steel container, spooning vinegar mixture Over each layer. Cover tightly. Marinate 6 to 12 hours in the refrigerator, stirring occasionally and keeping the mixture tightly covered. Place the meat strips on drying racks. Do not overlap the strips to ensure good air circulation.

Oven temperature should be 140 to 160 F (60 to 70 C) for the first 8 to 10 hours. After that it may be lowered to 130 F (55C) until dry. Place aluminum foil or a baking sheet underneath the drying tray to catch the drippings. Occasionally blot the Jerky with paper towels as it dries to remove beads of oil. Test jerky for dryness by cooling a piece. When cool it should crack when bent but not break. There should be no moist spots.


Turkey Jerky

1 Turkey meat sliced thin 2 tbsp. Liquid smoke 3 tbsp. Soy Sauce 10 Ds Tabasco sauce 1/3 cup Worcestershire sauce 1-1/2 ts Hickory seasoning Liquid 1 tb Onion salt

Mix all ingredients together in a marinade dish. Mix together and Add strips of turkey or beef into marinade. Marinade for 8-24 Hours, depending upon how often you shake mixture and how Flavorful you want it. Take strips out of marinade and lightly Dampen with towel to try excess liquid off. Place in dehydrator Or on sheets for oven. Dehydrate till jerky is tough/crisp. Time Varies based on method of dehydration, use your best judgement (12-36 hours). Add extra Tabasco for spicier flavor.


Marinated Spicy Jerky

8 lb Beef or caribou round - or flank steak 6 ts Salt 4 ts Pepper 4 ts Chili powder 4 ts Garlic powder 4 ts Onion powder 2 ts Cayenne pepper 2 ts Liquid smoke 1 cup Water 3/4 cup Soy sauce 1/2 cup Worcestershire sauce

Trim all fat off the meat and cut into 1/4" thick Strips. Mix other ingredients together in a bowl. Add the meat and cover. Marinade overnight. Remove from Marinade and let dry on a rack. Line a cookie sheet With foil and arrange meat on it in a single layer. Dry for 6 or more hours at 175, turning after 3 hours. Cool and bag it.


Grandma's Jerky

1/2 cup Dark soy sauce 2 tb Worcestershire sauce 1 ts MSG (opt) 1/2 ts Onion powder 1/2 ts Garlic powder 1/4 ts Ginger, powdered 1/4 ts Chinese five-spice powder 3 lb Lean beef brisket, eye of round or flank steak

Trim meat completely of fat and cut across grain into slices 1/8 inch thick. To aid in slicing meat thinly, freeze until ice crystals are formed. Blend all ingredients except meat in small bowl. Dip each piece Of meat into marinade, coating well. Place in shallow dish. Pour Remaining marinade over top, cover and refrigerate overnight.

Oven method: Preheat oven too lowest setting (preferably 110 F). Place several layers of paper towels on baking sheets. Arrange Meat in single layer on prepared sheets and cover with additional toweling. Flatten meat with rolling pin. Discard towels and set meat directly on oven racks. Let dry 8 to 12 hours (depending on temperature of oven). Dehydrator method: Arrange meat on trays in single layer and Dehydrate 10 to 12 hours, depending on thickness. Store jerky in plastic bags or in tightly covered containers in cool, dry area


Home Style Jerky

1 lb Round steak, cut in strips 4 -"x1/8 " thick 1/4 cup Soy sauce 1 tb Worchestshire sauce 1/2 ts Onion powder 1/2 ts Garlic powder 1/2 ts Black pepper 3/4 ts Hot sauce 1/2 ts Hickory salt

Fat grams per serving:Approx. Cook Time: 8 hrs Slice round steak, cut in strips about 4 in. long and 1/8 in. thick. (The slicing is easier if The steak is partially frozen.) Combine all the Ingredients and marinate in the fridge for at least 8 hrs, mixing occasionally. Then skewer the marinated strips on bamboo skewers or toothpicks and hang the strips in the oven with a pan below to catch the drippings.

Set the oven on it's lowest setting (l00-150 F) and use something to keep the door ajar. The jerky should be dry after 8-10 hours. This was my First time making jerky and the product come out surprisingly good, but perhaps a bit too salty. You might want to try low salt soy .


Hawaiian Jerky

Serving: 1 servings 1 lb Lean meat, thinly sliced 1 ts Salt 1 ts Ground ginger 1 tb Brown sugar 1/4 ts Pepper 1/8 ts Cayenne pepper 1 Crushed garlic clove 1/4 cup Pineapple juice 1/4 cup Soy sauce

General jerky method: All recipes use 1 lb lean meat, thinly sliced. (3/16-1/4 in thick) In a small glass bowl, combine all ingredients except meat. Stir to mix well. Place meat 3-4 layers deep in a container, spooning sauce mixture over each layer. Cover tightly and marinate 6-12 hours in the 'fridge, stirring occasionally and Keeping the mixture covered.

Layout on trays, 24 to 36 Hours in dehydrator. I used a couple of cans of pineapple chunks with the juice in the marinated. Just dehydrated them with the meat. Very interesting.


Jeff Boyd's Beef Jerky Recipe

Slice up 2 lbs of either beef or venisen into 1" strips,pound with a meat malet.Then season with season salt,a pinch of garlic,and then add liquid hickory smoke and let sit for 24 hours.Then heat up 1 cup of honey,and coat the strips and then place in over at 250 in your oven for 8-10 hours or get a food dehyderator . Tastes great and even the kids will like it.


Smoked Salmon or Trout Fillets

Ingredients: Salmon or Trout fillets (we prefer Steelhead or Rainbow Trout) Italian dressing (not Creamy style) Old Bay Seafood Seasoning Alder chips (others could be used but it wouldn't be the same)

Directions: Marinate the fillets in the Italian dressing for 30 minutes or so. Sprinkle Old Bay Seasoning, to taste, on the fillets for the last 10 minutes or so. While fillets are marinating, soak a couple of handfuls of Alder chips in water or white wine. The choice is yours. Light the Egg and allow it to come to 225°. A Daisy Wheel Top and precision thermometer help here. Add the Alder chips, install the porcelain grid and place a drip pan on the grid.

Place the fillets, skin side down, on a fish grid and the fish grid on the drip pan. The drip pan serves to shield the fish from the direct heat of the fire and allows the smoke to circulate around the fish. Allow 30 to 45 minutes, depending on the thickness of the fillets. When the fillets flake easily with a fork, they are done. Enjoy!

If you have any fillets left over, they can be wrapped in aluminum foil, refrigerated, and re-heated for another treat.


Cheater Smoked Salmon Pate

1 (15 1/2 oz.) can salmon, drained and flaked 1 (8 0z.) package cream cheese, softened 1 tbsp. lemon juice 1 tbsp. onion, minced 1 tbsp. horseradish 1/2 tsp. liquid smoke 1/4 tsp. Tabasco 2 tbsp. fresh parsley, chopped

Combine all but parsley, spoon into serving bowl, cover and chill several hours or overnight. Sprinkle with parsley prior to serving. Serve with melba rounds or crackers.


Penne Pasta With Heart Smart Smoke Alaska Salmon Cream Sauce

1 can (14-3/4 oz.) or 2 cans (7-1/2 oz. each Alaska salmon, drained and flaked 1 lb. penne pasta 1 tsp. liquid smoke 1/2 cup white wine 1 cup clam juice 1 tsp. garlic, minced 1 shallot, minced 3/4 cup evaporated skim milk1/2 tbsp. cornstarch fresh dill, chopped, to taste olive oil cooking spray.

Mix cornstarch with 2 tbsp. of evaporated skim milk, hold aside. Spray a saute pan with cooking spray, add garlic, dill, shallot and 2 tbsp. of wine and cook for 2 minutes. Add the clam juice, liquid smoke and 3/4 of the salmon; cook for 5 minutes.

Remove to a blender or food processor and process to your desired consistency. Add the cooked pasta and toss; cook to heated through. Taste, adding salt and pepper as needed. Serve, garnished with additional dill. Makes 6-8 servings.

Steak Sauce

Melt 3 tablespoons of butter in a sauce pan, add 2 tablespoons of chopped onion, stir in 1 tablespoon of flour and 1 cup of dry red wine bring to a boil, add 1 garlic clove mashed, 2 tablespoons of tomato sauce, salt, pepper, simmer over low heat for 15 minutes.


Shrimp Marinara

Heat 2 tablespoons of Olive Oil in a deep frying pan. Add 1 clove of garlic chopped, 1 small onion chopped, 1 Bay Leaf and 2 tablespoons of Parsley, stir until onions are soft. Add 18 washed cleaned and devein shrimp. Cook for 3 minutes. Add 1 cup of dry white wine and 1/2 teaspoon of salt, bring to a boil, reduce heat cook for 5 to 7 minutes.

Basting sauce for chicken / roast, broil, or grill.

1/2 cup dry white wine, 1/2 cup melted butter, 1 garlic clove, 1 teaspoon dried Rosemary.

Lamb Marinade / roast, broil, or grill.

1/4 cup Olive Oil, 1/2 cup dry white wine, 1/2 teaspoon salt, 1/8 teaspoon ground pepper, 1 teaspoon dried thyme. Mix well, rub into cubed lamb chunks and mix, let stand for 2 hours at room temperature.


How much salt and water to add with curing salt #1 or #2 for dry or brine curing


Meat Curing Calculator
Type of curing Wet Brining
Dry Curing
Meat Weight lb kg g
Pink curing salt %
Total Sea Salt 2.00% %



Total Pink Curing Salt 7.94 g or 0.28 oz
Total Sea Salt 79.38 g or 2.8 oz
Water 0.907 litres or 0.24 gallons


  • It’s 0.25% pink curing salt for pink curing salts, #1 or #2
  • Brining : It’s base on 40% water ratio to the weight ie. 1L=1Kg total water weight , therefore 1 Kg of Meat would need 400 ml of water.
  • Simple dry-cured meat 2.00% is a common sea salt level +(pink salt .25%), so it,s total is 2.25% total salt.

0.25 Teaspoons (tsp) of Salt =
1.50 Grams
0.05 Ounces
0.00 Pounds
0.00 Kilograms

0.5 Teaspoons (tsp) of Salt =
3.00 Grams
0.10 Ounces
0.00 Pounds
0.00 Kilograms

0.25 Tablespoons (tbsp) of Salt =
4.50 Grams
0.16 Ounces
0.01 Pounds
0.00 Kilograms

0.50 Tablespoons (tbsp) of Salt =
9.00 Grams
0.32 Ounces
0.01 Pounds
0.00 Kilograms


   This bidding system is between you and your partner, the other side will be doing the same thing  


Contract Bridge Game Requirement

You need 4 players a card table, score card and 2 deck's of cards. Spread 1 deck of cards on the table, players

draw from the spread deck but not from the first 4 or last 4 of the deck. The 2 highest are partner and the lowest

are partner. Suit value are used. The highest player picks the chair he wants to sit in and he deal's first. The player

on the dealer right shuffles the cards and his partner then cuts the deck. Dealer then deal's the whole deck one

card at a time in a clockwise direction starting with the player on his left, at the same time the dealer's partner

shuffles the 2nd deck of cards.


Basic rules of Bridge

Each card is call a trick, there are 13 tricks in a hand. 4 players per game.

A book is 6 tricks, you have to make your book plus each trick you bid.

10,J,Q,K,A are called honor cards. Always cover opponents honor card with a higher honor card, unless you have a reason not too.

High card point value, J = 1 , Q = 2 , K= 3 , A = 4.

A Grand Slam means winning all 13 tricks. A Small Slam means winning 12 tricks.

Suit rank = Clubs, Diamonds, Hearts, Spades, No Trump.

Total of 26 points = Game in Major suit ( 4 Hearts & Spades or 3 No Trump ).

Total of 29 points = Game in Minor suit ( 5 Clubs & Diamonds ).

Weak No Trump = 12 to 14 points. Find out if partner uses Weak or Strong No Trump.

Strong No Trump = 16 to 18 points. Find out if partner uses Weak or Strong No Trump. ( I prefer the strong )


Playing a No Trump Contract

Find your longest and strongest suit and play them first.

Win the tricks you need before using your sure tricks, and always try and  keep blockers in your short suit for the end.

Use your sure tricks when you have enough tricks to win the contract.

Always remember to leave winning tricks in dummy hand so you can lead from dummy hand.


Playing a Suit Contract

Draw Trump until opponents have none. If you can.

Use your loser tricks with dummy Trump.

Win the tricks you need before using your sure tricks.

Try not to Trump tricks with declare's hand.


Short Bidding points

Should not  be used in responders hand when partner bids  No Trump.

Use for extra value in the responder second round and then the bidder third round of bidding and thereafter.

 Don't add points on  short suits bid by partner, only suite bid by opponents.

Add 2 point for each suit you have 2 cards.

Add 5 points for each suit you have 1 card. 

Add 9 points for each suit you have a void in.


Responding in a Take out Double

If partner doubles your opponents up to the 2nd level providing it was made at his first opportunity to bid, it is called a take out double.

 The lease amount of points you have ( 5 or less ) the more urgent it is to respond to get partner out of the double.

This double bid means that he has points to bid, but his hand is to balance in strength to bid a suit, and you want partner to call the suit.

 Bid your longest and strongest suit not bid by opponents.

 9 points is a good hand in a take out double and makes it not as urgent, you would bid your longest and strongest suit.

With 11 - 12 points bid a 4 card unbid Major or Minor, or make a Cue bid ( bidding opponents suit).

Bid 1 No Trump. This is a rare bid.

With 13 or more points, jump to game with a 4 cards or longer in a Major suit, or jump to 3 No Trump. There is achance for a slam.

A redouble by opponent is for penalty.

If the third hand bids a new suit over a takeout double, to show strength the fourth player must make a Cue bid ( bidding opponents suit).


Cue Bid

This bid is a signal to partner that you have points to open but you don't know which suit. 

By bidding opponents suit for a Cue bid tell partner to bid his best suit and since we have no intention in playing this contract in opponents suit.

Partner will not pass but bid his longest and strongest suit.


Do not cue bid with less than 11 points.

Only cue bid when there is no other way to describe your hand to partner.

If the fourth seat is a Cue bid by your partner after you passes in the first round your partner shows a strong suit and good distribution.

Cue bidding after your suit has been established show interests in a slam.


Forcing Bid

Jumping from 1 to 3 of a suit is a forcing bid, this bid tell partner to bid 3 No Trump or 4 Hearts, or 4 Spades if suit match, for a game contract.

 Used after a 1 No Trump bid, or any suit bid.

 There should be a total of 26 points to make this bid.


Negative 1 No Trump

Used after partner bids 1 of a suit. This bid tell your partner, that you have 2 or less cards of his suit but

you do have points to bid. Use this bid if you don't have any other safe way to describe your hand to your partner.



Your first suit bid should be your longest and strongest suit, your second suit bid should be your 2nd longest and strongest suit.

Any five-card suit is biddable. You need 13 high card points to bid, 16 points to bid a suit or No trump if everyone passes and you are the last one to bid.

Add 1 point for 5 card suit, 2 points in a 6 card suit, 3 points in a 7 card suit. Used in the second and third round of bidding.

With two five-card suits, bid the stronger suit first.

Bidding a four-card suit, it must contain 5 high-card points and a total of 14-15 points in hand to be biddable.

If you have points to bid and partner bid a suit you only have 1 or 2 cards in that suit, try not to leave partner in

that suit by bidding another suit, or 1 No Trump. If partner rebids that suit then pass.

If you can't agree with a suit then return to the first suit that partner open the bidding with because it is his longest and strongest suit.

If a second suit is bid at the 3 level it shows a hand of 2 - 5 card suit and , 2 and 1 card short in the other 2 suits.

Changing suits by partner over opponents bid suit is a forcing bid.

Bid A, K, J, before A, J, 10  of the same length between minors and majors.

With a freakish distribution it is a sound bet to win the contract.

13-16 bid 1

 16-19 bid 1 NT

 19-22 bid 2

 23 bid 2 NT

 23-25 bid 3

 26 bid 3 NT

 26-29 bid 4

 30-32 bid 4 NT

You can ad your partner opening bid  points and your points and with the total, you should bid up to this  level in the list above. Then Blackwood.


Balance Seat or bidding in the 4 position if opponents bid will give them game

If opponents opens and partner passes and opponent passes, and it's your turn to bid, this is called the Balance seat.

 You have to bid even if a hand that you would normal pass, if opponents bid will give them the rubber match.

 Add 1 point for every 5, 6, 7, card in a suit, and your short suits points to make a total of 13 points to open.

The idea behind the balance is that if opponents are going to let the bidding end at the 1st level then you and your partner might have a good hand,

 the weaker your hand is the stronger your partner hand might be. If opponents only need game at the 1st level then I would be cautious.


Bidding Weak 2 & Strong 2

Opening bid of a weak 2. You need 10 - 11 points, length of 6 cards in the suit. 

2 high card honors. Distribution of 6,3,3,1 or 6,3,2,2 or 6,4,2,1. I Start this bid at the 1st level.

 If partner responds then jump the bid to the 3rd level. Not recommend, I like strong 2 ( 19-23 points, bid your longest and strongest suit.), and weak 3. Pre-emptive Bid


Responding with a weak 2

If partner opens at the 1st level and you hold, 7 - 10 points 2 high card honors, length of 6 cards in the suit, distribution of 6,3,3,1 or 6,3,3,2 or 6,4,2,1. Jump this bid to the 3rd level of your suit.

Total of 15 points and you hold 4 honors, bid at the 1 level. Length of 6 cards in the suit.

Total of 17 points and you hold 4 honors, bid at the 2 level. Length of 6 cards in the suit.

Total of 19 points and you hold 4 honors, bid at the 3 level. Length of 6 cards in the suit.

Total of 21 points and you hold 3 honors, bid at the 3 level, - 4 honors, bid at the 4 level. Length of 6 cards in the suit.

Total of 23 points and you hold 3 honors, bid at the 3 level, - 4 honors, bid at the 4 level. Length of 6 cards in the suit.

Total of 25 points and you hold 3 honors, bid at the 4 level, - 4 honors, bid at the 5 level. Length of 6 cards in the suit.

Total of 27 points and you hold 4 honors, bid at the 5 level. Length of 6 cards in the suit.

Total of 29 points and you hold 4 honors, bid at the 5 level. Length of 6 cards in the suit.

Total of 31 points and you hold 4 honors, bid at the 6 level. Length of 6 cards in the suit.


Bidding a weak 3 / Pre-emptive Bid

Used in the first round this bid shuts the line of communication between your opponents and your partner.

7 card suit with 8 - 11 points, 4 of the 10 honor points, bid 3 of a any suit, with a distribution of 7,2,2,2 or 7,3,2,1.

8 card suit with 7 - 10 points, 3 of the 10 honor points, bid 3 of a any suit, with a distribution of 8,3,2,1 or 8,2,2,1.

9 card suit with 6 - 9 points, 2 of the 10 honors points, jump to the 4th level of your suit. Distribution of, 9,2,1,1, or 9,3, 2,0

Pre-emptive bid are best in the third hand position, never make a pre-emptive bid in the fourth position

11 or more points bid 1 of a suit. This hand is to strong for a pre-emptive bid.

16, or more points, bid 4 Hearts or Spades Clubs or Diamond. with a 7 card suit or longer .


Responding to a weak 3 / Pre-emptive bid

Responding to a pre-emptive, you hold  Club, x - Hearts, J, x - Diamonds, A,K,xxx - Spades, K,Q,xxx, partner

opened with 3 hearts you would bid 4 hearts, there no sense in bidding 4 diamonds because you know that hearts will be trump.

Raise 1 trick with 12 points, 2 tricks with 16 points, 3 tricks with 18 points, 4 tricks with 21 points.

If partner opens at the 4 Clubs or Diamonds level, pass with 0 - 15 points.


Rebids by pre-emptive opener

If responder bids a new suit at the 3 level, raise with 3 card support, or bid 3 No Trump.


Defending a pre-emptive bid

Defensive bid to a pre-emptive bid is 3 No Trump with at lease 17 points.

0 - 14 points pass.

15 - 21 points, bid 3 with a 5 card suit or longer. Double with support of unbid suits. Bid 3 No Trump with stoppers in opponent's suit.

With 15 or more points double opponents pre-emptive bid, with no one vulnerable.

22 or more points cue bid opponents suit, ( bid opponents suit ). Partner must respond.


Responses after partner overcalls a pre-emptive bid

0 - 8 points, pass. Game can not be made.

9 points or more raise partner suit with 3 card support.

10 points bid your best suit at the 3 level with 4 cards or longer.

11 points bid 3 No Trump.


Responses after partner Doubles a Pre-emptive bid if it's his first bid

0 - 8 points, bid a 4 card suit or longer of an unbid suit at the lowest available level.

9 or more points, bid 4 Hearts or Spades with a 4 card suit or longer, or bid 3 No Trump.


Bidding Short Club or Diamonds

Inform partner that you use this bid before the game starts.

13 - 14 points but no 4 card suits with 5 points. Bid 1 Club or Diamond. A good dummy hand if you can find a fit

in a suit. Used in the 1 or 2 position, in the first round.

It dose put a ? to partner when you have a real Club or Diamond bid

I prefer to pass and wait for partner to bid, if not then you have a good defences hand. If he dose open you have a game at 3 No Trump.

Not Recommend. 


Responding to suit bid of 1

6 - 9 points to reply, or bid your longest or strongest suit, or pass.

1 No Trump means you don't like your partner bid ( you have 2 or less cards in his suit ), but you have points to bid.

9 - 12 points. Double if opponents bid your strong suit after partner bids in the first round of bidding. 4 cards and more in length.

13 points. Bid 3 No Trump or 4 Hearts or 4 Spades.


Responding in No Trump.

Jump to 2 No Trump with 10 points in high cards and blockers in opponent's suit.

Jump to 3 No Trump with 13 points in high cards and blockers in opponent's suit.

Jump to 4 No Trump with a holding anywhere between 19 points signal for a slam and Blackwood.


Responding in a suit

A bid of 1 over can be made in support or a new suit with a holding anywhere between 6 and 9 points.

A bid of 2 over can be made in support or a new suit with a holding anywhere between 10 to 15 points.

A bid of 3 over can be made in support or a new suit with a holding anywhere between 16 to 18 points.

A bid of 4 over can be made in support or a new suit with a holding anywhere between 19 to 21 points.

Jump from 1 to 4 in your partner major suit when you have, 4 card support, 13 - 15 points and a void or i of opponents suit bid.


Opening No-Trump bids

Demand bid. Partner must respond.

Bidding for No Trump there are 3 acceptable shape in the suits,( 4,3,3,3 - 4,4,3,2 - 5,3,3,2 ) and 16 - 18 points.

Open 1 No Trump with 16 to 19 points.

Open 2 No Trump with 22 to 24 points.

Open 3 No Trump with 25 to 27 points.

Open 4 No Trump with 30 to 32 points.

Open 5 No Trump with 35 to 38 Points.

No trump - you need a total 33 points for a small slam and 37 points for a Slam.


Responses to 1 No Trump bids

You must respond.

A weak take-out on a 1 No Trump bid is 2 of a suit, this bid tells partner that we don't have a total of 26 points for game in 3 No Trump, and we must find a suit in the 2nd or 3rd level.

Bid your longest and strongest suit ( 0 - 6 ) points.

Raise 1 level of No Trump with 8 points.

Raise 2 levels of No Trump with 10 points.

Raise 3 levels of No Trump with 16 points.

Raise 4 levels of No Trump with 18 points.


Responding in a suit

Raise 2 of a suit, 2 Clubs, 2 Diamonds, 2 Hearts, or 2 Spades with a five card suit and less than 8 points.

Raise 3 of a suit with a five-card suit and 10 points.

Raise 4  of a suit with a six-card suit and 10 points.

With 11 points or more you must see to it that the partnership reaches a game contract. If a major suit fit has been

uncovered, responder may raise  directly to 4 of that suit. If no fit has not been established, you should usually jump to 3 No Trump.

 With 7 or 8 points, responder either raises his partner's major to 3 or else returns to 2 No Trump.

Defensive bid to 1 No Trump, bid your longest and strongest suit, if opponent on your right bids 1 No Trump, 12 - 13 points including shorts points.


Opening Bid of 2 No Trump

You need a balance hand with 23 points


Responses to a 2 No Trump opening bid

With 0 - 2 points, pass.

3 - 5 points bid 3 Hearts or Spades with a 4 card Major suit.

3 - 5 points bid 4 Hearts or Spades with a 5 card Major suit.

3- 5 points bid 3 No Trump.

9- 10 points bid 4 No Trump.


Opening bid of 3 No Trump

You need a balanced hand with 26 points.


Responses to a 3 No Trump opening bid

6 - 7 points bid 4 Hearts or Spades with a 4 card Major suit.

6 - 7 points bid 5 Hearts or Spades with a 5 card Major suit.

With 6 - 7 points bid 4 No Trump.


Bidding Strong 2 or Opening demand bids of 2 in a suit

Partner must respond.

With a good five-card suit - 24 points.

With a good six-card suit - 21 points.

The bidder must have four defensive tricks.1 in each suit.

2 No Trump,. Balance hand with 21 - 24 points, blockers in all 4 suits.


Responses to a Strong 2 or a demand bids of 2 in a suit 

You must respond.

Less than 3 points, bid 2 No Trump. This is a negative bid.

With 3 to 5 points and a balanced hand, bid 3 No Trump.

With 6 - 8 points bid any 4 card support, bid at the 4th level or 4 No Trump.

With 9 - 11 points bid any 4 card support, bid at the 5th level or 5 No Trump.

With 12 to 17  points jump to 5 No Trump.

Total of 27 points, a 7 card suit bid up to the 6th level.

Total of 28 points, a 5 card suit bid up to the 5th level.

Total of 28 points, a 6 card suit bid up to the 6th level.

Total of 29 points, a 6 card suit bid up to the 7th level.


Blackwood Convention

If a suit has been agreed on ( say partner bids 1 spade and you jump bid 4 spades ) and partner then bids 4 No Trump this is the Blackwood Convention.

 If a suit has not been agreed on then 4 No Trump is not Blackwood.

In Blackwood you would reply with how many Aces you have, then Kings, and Queens.

If partner bids 4 No Trump, he is asking for how many aces you have,you would reply = 5 clubs means 0 aces or 4 aces, 5

diamonds means 1 ace, 5 hearts means 2 aces, 5 spades means 3 aces, he will then bid 5 No Trump if he wants to continue bidding for a slam.

If partner bids 5 No Trump, he is asking for how many kings you have,you would reply = 5 clubs means 0 king or 4 kings, 5

diamonds means 1 king, 5 hearts means 2 king, 5 spades means 3 king. He will then bid 6 No Trump if he wants to continue bidding for a slam.

If partner bids 6 No Trump, he is asking for how many queens you have, you would reply = 5 clubs means 0 queen or 4 queens,

5 diamonds means 1 queen, 5 hearts means 2 queen, 5 spades means 3 queen.

Partner bids 4 No Trump, you reply 5 Clubs ( 0 Aces ), partner jumps bid to 6 No Trump = partner wants to play contract in No Trump and wants to stop bidding by jumping the bid.


Slam Valuation and possibilities

33 high card total points = small slam, maybe Grand Slam

37 - 38 points = Grand Slam.

Jump raise by you with 16 - 18 points, possible slam.

Partner opens, you have 13 points and a void in a suit not bid by you or partner, possible slam.

Partner opens and you have a pre-emptive bid, possible slam.

1 NT bid, you have 16 - 18 points, possible slam.


How to make your first  lead when you Double

Under no conditions should the you lead a suit that has been bid by your own side when you double in a contract at the 4th level and less.

 First lead what the dummy hand bid, if dummy did not bid  then the suit that declarer bid.

If partner doubles a contract in the fifth level and up and it holds, you must lead the suit he doubles.


When and how to Double and Redouble

The second and third level is a good time to double, before opponents find a good fit.

 If you can strike at this time you will often make points.

If partner opens with 1 of a suit, count on him for 3 tricks.

If partner opens with 1 No Trump, count on him for 4 tricks.

If partner makes a take out double, count on him for 3 tricks.

If partner has overcalled or has given you a single raise, count on him for 1 trick.

If partner makes a pre-emptive bid, count on him for 0 tricks.

Against a suit contract, do not count on more than 2 tricks per suit.

Be slow to double when you have length in partner suit, be quick to double when short in partner suit.

Count 1 trick for holding 4 adverse trumps, even if they are small.

Avoid doubling when you have nothing but length in the opponent's suit.

Do not double unless you expect to beat the contract by at lease 2 tricks.

Double if you open with 14-15 points, partner bids, and both opponent have bid up to the 3rd level preventing you from making a second bid at the 2nd level.

Double when you have 15 points, with 2 honors and an 8 in two suits no longer than 4, and not in partner suit bid at the 3 level.

Double if you and your partner have 26 points and opponents are in 1 NT.

Double if you and your partner have 23 points and opponents are in  the 2 level.

Double if opponents jump from 1 to 4 and your partner passes and you hold 15 points and 1 card or void of opponents bid suit, and it's your first time to bid.

Double when you are short in partner bid suit ( 2 or less cards ), you hold 8-11 points, a 4 card suit with 4 points in opponents bid suit,

 and no points in partner suit. This hand is worth a business double at the 2 level.

Avoid doubling slams bids. Opponents if using a convention will know what cards are out and are probable short in suit. 

The gain  are small and the losses are big.

Double when you have a total points count, and blockers in opponents suit.

Double 1 with 16-18 pt.

 1 NT with 23-24 pt.

 2 with 21-22 pt

 2 NT with 19-20

 3 with 17-18 pt

 3 NT with 15-16 pt


Bidding after you passed

Bidding after you pass is a sign of less than 13 points but a strong 5 or 6 card suit and should only be used in the 2 and 3 suit level.

 Bidding after you have pass, this player is not expected to have 13 points and if you pass after partner bids you are not expected to have more than 6 points. 

Your suit bid should be lower ranked than opponent.


Sign's and Signals on Discard

If you are not double in your suit bid there a good chance that the outstanding cards are evenly split.

When partner responds low it means no, when he responds high he wants you to lead this suit again or yes.

When partner is out  in a suit he normally discard from his strong suit or creating a short suit.

If partner makes a bid but does not lead the suit he might have a A-Q or K-J of the suit, or creating a short suit.

Opponent discards 2 of the same suit early in the game, therefore he must hold the highest honor that is missing in that suit.

Count opponents points as they discard, this will help when you are looking for a certain honor card.

Players bids the same suit 3 times and partner passes. This pass means a weak hand in suit length, and not very strong in points.


Leads and When to Finesse

You must (1) lead your top card of partner suit that he bid. If partner did not bid then you

 (2) lead the suit that dummy hand bid or (3) lead the forth down from your longest and strongest suit bid.

 If  dummy did not bid(4)lead declarer suit bid. This is a preferred order of leading your first card  in a non double contract.

 When a player leads the fourth best of a suit, even if it is only the lowest cards of a 4-card suit,

 his partner deducts the number of the card from eleven, and the answer to this sum is the exact number of  cards higher than the card led,

 divided between the other three hands. If West leads a six and you East immediately deduct 6 from 11.

 The answer is 5 so you know that there are  five cards higher than the 6. Dummy has 3 you have 2. Total 5,South has none


A normal lead of an Ace, King of the same suit, is the Ace.

Lead a singleton of a suit that was not bid by declare.

Leading Trump is a very good defensive play when there is nothing safe to lead.

Second hand leads low and the third hand leads high.

When you are short in a suit and you are the declare it is wise to duck the suit saving your blockers for the end.

If your dummy hand and your hand has 13 points and the player on your left made a bid in the auction, then all the 

face cards that are missing in your hand and your dummy hand are in the hand of the player on your left.


Deceptive Leads

Lead a J from a Q, J, doubleton

Lead your fifth best instead of your forth best in NT.

Lead a high card of suit that dummy bid.

When you hold the K 9 8 6, lead the 9.

If someone leads a suit that you hold the A,K,Q, the best card to win the trick with is the King.


Holding up

Hold up from playing your Ace when dummy's hand show's length and strength in one suit and declarer leads to

that suit after he has drawn all trump from you and partner.


Other Conventions



A 2 Clubs response to an opening bid of 1 No Trump or a 3 Clubs response to an opening bid of 2 No Trump asking opener for a four card major.



A jump to 4 Clubs after partner has bid 1 No Trump or 2 No Trump asks partner for aces.  Responses to a Gerber 4 Clubs leap are

4 Diamonds   0 or 4 aces       

 4 Hearts   1 Aces

4 No Trump  3 Aces

 4 Spades   2 Aces

 After aces have been shown, a rebid of 5 Clubs by the 4 Clubs bidder asks for kings. Responses to a 5 Clubs king ask are:

5 Diamonds   0 or 4 Kings

 5 Hearts   1 King

5 Spades   2 Kings

 5 No Trump  3 Kings


A Weak 2 Bid

An opening bid of 2 Diamonds, 2 Hearts or 2 Spades which describes a hand with a  six card suit and 7 - 9 high card points.  It is a preemptive or weak opening bid mean to obstruct the opponents. 

 When playing Weak Two Bids, an opening bid of 2 Clubs is reserved for very strong hands in all suits.


Jacoby Transfer

When partner opens 1 No Trump or 2 No Trump and responder has a five or six card major, responder bids the suit beneath his  major, which requests the opener to bid responder's major.

     Opener                 Responder

                                                 1 No Trump         2 Hearts  ( asks opener to bid 2 Spades )

2 Spades             ?

Responder can now pass, raise spades, bid No Trump or show a second suit.

        Opener                Responder

                                                 2 No Trump        3 Diamonds ( asks opener to bid 3 Hearts )

3 Hearts             ?

Responder can now pass, raise hearts, bid No Trump or show another suit.


One No Trump Forcing

A one No Trump response to an opening bid of 1 Heart or 1 Spade is forcing for one round and shows 6 - 11 high card points.

This system, a two over one response to an opening bid of 1 Heart or 1 Spade is a game force.


Three No Trump Opening Bid

An opening bid of 3 No Trump would show a solid six cars suit, or, a seven card minor with stoppers in at least two of the other three suits.



Like the Jacoby, these are also transfers over 1 No Trump :

4 Diamonds shows at least 6 hearts.

 4 Hearts shows at least 6 spades.



Engine  Trouble Shooting

Vintage Cars With Carburetor,s





Engine won't turn over

Run-down battery

 Starting circuit open

 Bendix drive jammed

 Cranking motor jammed

Engine jammed

 Recharge or replace

 Locate and eliminate open

 Free drive

 Remove for teardown and correction

 Check engine to find trouble

Engine turns over slowly but won't start

Run-down battery

 Defective cranking motor

 Bad connections in starting circuit

 Undersized battery cables

 Recharge or replace

 Replace or repair

 Clean and Tighten


Engine turns over at normal speed but does not start

 Ignition system defective

 Air leaks in intake manifold, carb.

 Engine defective

 Fuel system defective or overchoking.

 Try spark test,Check timing, ignition system

 Tighten mounting, replace gasket as needed

 Check compression or leakage, valve, timing,

 Prime engine, check fuel pump, line, choke,carburetor

 Engine runs but misses-one cylinders

 Defective spark plug

 Defective cap, lead

 Stuck valve

Defective ring or piston

Defective head gasket

 Check or replace


 Free valve, service stem and guide

 Replace; service piston,cylinder walls


Engine runs but misses-different cylinders

 Defective Ignition

 Defective fuel system

 Loss of Compression

 Defective rings

 Overheated engine

 Manifold heat-control valve sticks

 Clogged exhaust

 Defective valve action

Check timing, ignition

 Check fuel pump, carburetor

 Check compression or leakage

 Replace rings, service pistons, cylinder walls  

 Check cooling system

 Free valve

 Check tail pipe, muffler,eliminate clogging

 Check valve action with compression or vacuum

Engine lacks power,acceleration, or highspeed performance, hot or cold

 Ignition defective

 Fuel system defective

 Throttle valve not opening fully

 Clogged exhaust

 Loss of compression

 Excessive carbon in engine

 Defective valve action

 Heavy oil

 Wrong or bad fuel

 Excessive rolling resistance

 Check timing,distributor, wiring, coil, plugs

 Check carburetor, air cleaner, fuel pump

 Adjust linkage

 Check tail pipe, muffler

 Check compression, leakage

 Remove carbon

 Check with compression, leakage, vacuum test

 Use lighter oil

 Use good fuel of correct octane

 Correct, tires, dragging brake,wheel misalignment

Engine lacks power, acceleration, or high speed performance, hot only

 Engine overheats

 Defective choke

 Sticking manifold heat-control 

 Vapor lock

Check cooling system 

 Repair or replace

 Free valve

 Use different fuel, or shield fuel line

Engine lacks power, acceleration, or highspeed performance, cold only

 Automatic choke stuck

 Manifold heat-control valve stuck

 Cooling-system thermostat stuck

 Stuck engine valves

 Repair or replace

 Free valve

 Repair or replace

 Free valves; service valve, stems and guides

Engine overheats

 Lack of water

 Ignition timing late

 Loose or broken fan belt

 Defective thermostat

 Clogged water jackets

 Defective radiator hose

 Defective water pump

 Insufficient engine oil

 High-altitude, hot climate

 Valve timing late

Add water

 Adjust timing

 Tighten or replace


 Clean out


 Repair or replace

 Add oil

 Drive more slowly, keep radiator filled


 Rough idle

 Carburetor idle incorrect

 Malfunction, crankcase, ventilator

 Check  (engine lack power)

 Readjust idle mixture and speed

 Clean or replace

Engine stalls as it warms up

Choke valve stuck closed

 Manifold heat-control valve stuck.  Engine Overheat

 Engine idling speed set too low

 Malfunctioning crankcase ventilator valve

Open choke valve, free or repair auto choke

 Free valve

 See (engine overheats)

 Increase idling speed to specified valve

 Clean or replace

 Engine stalls after idling or slow-speed driving

 Defective fuel pump


 High carburetor float level

 Idling adjustment incorrect

 Malfunctioning crankcase, ventilator valve

 Repair or replace fuel pump

 See ( engine overheat ) above



 Clean or replace

Engine stalls after high-speed drive

Vapor lock

Engine overheats

 Carburetor venting or idle compensator valve defective

Use different fuel, or shield fuel line

 See ( engine overheats ) above

 Check and repair

Engine backfires

 Ignition timing off

 Spark plugs of wrong heat range

 Excessively rich or lean mixture

 Overheating of engine

 Carbon in engine

 Valves hot or sticking

Cracked distributor cap

 Adjust timing

 Install correct plugs

Repair or readjust fuel pump or Carburetor

 See ( engine overheats ) above

 Clean out

 Adjust, free, clean, replace if bad.

 Replace cap

Excessive oil consumption

 External leaks

 High-speed driving

 Burning oil in combustion chamber

 Correct seals, replace gasket

 Drive more slowly

 Check valve-stem clearance, piston rings, cylinder walls, rod bearing, vacuum-pump diaphragm.

 Smoky exhaust

 Blue smoke

 Black smoke

 Excessive oil consumption

 Excessively rich mixture

 See (excessive oil consumption ) above

 See (excessive fuel consumption ) below

 Excessive fuel consumption


 Nervous or jackrabbit drive

 High speed

 Short-run operation

 Excessive fuel pump pressure

 Choke partly closed after warm-up

 Clogged air cleaner

 High carburetor float level

 Stuck or dirty float needle valve

 Worn carburetor jets

 Stuck metering rod or full-power piston

 Idle too rich or too fast

 Stuck accelerator-pump check valve

 Carburetor leaks

Faulty ignition

 Loss of engine compression

 Defective valve action

 Clutch slippage

 Excessive rolling resistance low tires, dragging brakes, wheel misalignment

 Drive more reasonably

 Drive more slowly

 Make longer runs

 Reduce pressure, repair pump

 Open, repair or replace auto. choke



 Free and clean





Replace gasket, tighten screws, etc

 Check coil,condenser,timing,plugs, points,lead

 Check compression or leakage

 Check with compression, leakage, vacuum

 Adjust or repair

 Correct the defects causing rolling resistance

 Engine stalls as it warms up

 Choke valve stuck closed

 Main heat-control valve stuck

 Engine overheats

 Engine idling speed set to low

 Malfunction crankcase ventilator valve

 Open choke vale, free or repair auto. choke

 Free valve

 See (Engine overheats ) above

 Increase idling speed to specified valve

 Clean or replace

 Engine stalls after idling or slow-speed driving

Defective fuel pump


 High carburetor float level

 Idling adjustment incorrect

 Malfunction crankcase ventilator valve

Repair or replace fuel pump

 See ( Engine overheats )



 Clean or replace

Engine stalls after high-speed drive

Vapor lock

Engine overheats

 Malfunction crankcase ventilator valve

 Carburetor venting or idle compensator valve defective

  Use different fuel, or shield fuel line

 See ( Engine overheats ) above

 Clean or replace

 Check or repair

 Engine Backfires

Ignition tining off

 Spark plugs of wrong heat range

 Excessively rich or lean mixture

 Overheating of engine

 Carbon in engine

 Valves hot or sticking

 Cracked distributor cap

 Adjust timing

 Install correct plugs

Repair or readjust fuel pump or carburetor

 See (Engine overheats ) above

 Clean out

 Adjust, free, clean, replace if bad

 Replace cap

Low oil pressure

 Worn engine bearings

 Engine overheating

 Oil dilution or foaming

 Lubricating-system defects


 See ( Engine overheats ) Above

 Replace oil

 Check oil lines, oil pump, relief valves

Engine is noisy

Regular clicking

Ping or chatter on load or acceleration

Valve and tappet

 Spark knock due to low octane fuel, carbon, advance ignition timing, or causes listed under ( engine backfires )

 Readjust valve clearance

 Use higher-octane fuel, remove carbon, adjust ignition timing

Light knock or pound with engine floating

Worn connecting-rod bearing or bushing or lack of oil

 Replace or adjust bearing, service crankpins, realign rod, correct lack of oil

Light, metallic double knock, usually most audible during idle

 Worn or loose piston pin or bushing or lack of oil

 Service pin and bushing, correct lack of oil

Chattering or rattling during acceleration

Worn rings, cylinder walls, low ring tension, broken rings

 Service walls, replace rings

Hollow, muffled bell-like sound, engine cold

 Piston slap due to worn pistons, walls, collapsed piston skirts, excessive clearance, lack of oil, misalignment connecting rods

Replace or resize piston, service walls, align rods, correct lack of oil

Dull, heavy metallic knock under load or acceleration especially when cold

 Regular noise, worn main bearings, irregular, worn end-thrust bearings

 Replace or service bearings and crankshaft

 Miscellaneous noises

 Rattles from, loosely  mounted accessories, generator, horn, oil pan, etc.

Tighten mounting

Valve and tappet noise

 This is a regular clicking noise that increases in intensity as engine speed increases. The cause is usually excessive valve clearance, a feeler gauge inserted between the valve stem and lifter or rocker arm will reduce the clearance. If the noise also is reduced, then the cause is excessive clearance. The clearance should be readjusted. If the noise is not reduces then the noise could be coming from the valve mechanism as weak springs, worn lifter faces, lifter loose in block, rough adjustment-screw face, or rough cams.

Spark knock


 Spark knock or rap is a pinging or chattering sound most noticeable during acceleration or when the car is climbing a hill. Some spark knock is normal, but when it becomes excessive, it is due to any of the several conditions, such as use of fuel of too low an octane rating for the particular engine, carbon deposits in the engine which increase compression ratio, advanced ignition timing.


Connecting-rod noises usually have a light knocking or pounding character. The sound is most noticeable when the engine is "floating" ( not accelerating or decelerating ). The sound becomes more noticeable as the accelerator is eased off with the car running at medium speed. To locate connecting-rod noise, short out spark plugs one at a time, the noise will be considerably reduced when the cylinder that is responsible is not delivering power. A worn bearing or crankpin, a misaligned connecting rod, inadequate oil, or excessive bearing clearances cause connecting-rod noise.

Piston-pin noise

 Piston-pin noise is somewhat similar to valve and tappet noise, but it has a characteristic metallic double knock. In addition, it is usually most audible during idle with the spark advanced. However, on some engines, the noise becomes louder on car speeds of around thirty miles per hour. A check can be made by running the engine at idle with the spark advanced and then shorting out spark plugs. Piston-pin noise will be reduced somewhat when a plug in a noisy cylinder is shorted out. Cause of this noise are a worn or loose piston pin, a worn brushing, or a lack of oil.

Piston-ring noise

Piston-ring noise is also somewhat similar to valve and tappet noise, since it is characterized by a clicking, snapping, or ratting noise, This noise, however, is most evident on acceleration. Low ring tension, broken rings, worn, Since the noise can sometimes be confused with other engine noises, a test can be made as follows. Remove the spark plugs, and add an ounce or two of heavy engine oil in each cylinder. Crank the engine for a several revolution to work the oil down past the rings. Then replace the plugs, and start the engine. If the noise has been reduced, it is probable that the rings are at fault.

Piston slap

 Piston slap is characterized by a muffled, hollow, bell-like sound and is due to the rocking back and forth of the piston in the cylinder, If it occurs only when the engine is cold, it should not be considered serious. When it occurs under all operating conditions, further investigation is in order. It is caused by inadequate oil, worn cylinder walls, worn piston, collapsed piston skirts, excessive piston clearances, or misaligned connecting rods.

Crankshaft knock

 This noise is a heavy and dull metallic knock most noticeable when the engine is under a heavy load or accelerating, particular when cold. When the noise is regular, it probably results from worm main bearings. When the noise is irregular and sharp, it is probably due to worn end-thrust bearing. This latter condition, when unusually bad, will cause the noise to be produced  each time the clutch is released and engaged.


 Other noises result from loosely mounted accessory parts, such as generator, cranking motor, horn, water pump, manifolds, flywheel, crankshaft pulley, oil pan and so fourth. In addition, other automotive components such as the clutch, transmission, and differential may develop various noises.








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